1. ADVERSE REACTIONS:
Some drugs, however not all have extreme or mild side effects on the human body. The human body although the same for everyone has slight variations which may or may not cause a drug reaction. Usually the most common side effects of medicines or drugs are, nausea, drowsiness, sometimes it may cause bleeding, slurred or impaired vision.
When one begins to experience such symptoms right after administrating the drug it is a clear warning signal that this drug is to be stopped and consult a doctor.
2. DRUG INTERACTION:
Something which is normally done by a lot of us is to take two or more different medicine together. Without knowledge of the fact that this can cause many side effects to our body. The drugs may alter or interfere about how one of them behaves in the body. For example and antacid causes a blood thinning medicine to be absorbed slowly where as an aspirin speeds up blood thinning effect of such medicines.
Two drugs taken at the same time cause “Potentiation”. Potentiation is helpful and harmful, helpful in the sense when two antibiotics are administered, they elevate each other’s effects.
Potentiation is harmful or even dangerous when several central nervous system depressing drugs are given. For example easily available drugs used to fight cold can increase the sedative effects of anesthetics and barbiturates.
3. FOOD AND DRUG INTERACTION:
Interaction of food with drugs can increase, decrease or even cut the action or function of a drug.
Here are some very common examples,
Fatty foods taken before the anti-fungal drug can cause the drug levels to increase greatly in the blood. Our dairy products that have high levels of calcium blocks the absorption process of tetracycline .
Fruit juices containing Ascorbic acid speed up the intake of iron into the blood.
Women taking oral contraceptives should include dark leafy vegetables in their diet as these contraceptive pills lower the folic acid and vitamin B content in the blood.
4. DRUGS AND ALCOHOL:
Long term use of alcohol has a direct effect on the liver and causes increased rates of metabolism of certain drugs such as drugs used for diabetes, anti-coagulants and anti-consultants. The effect of these drugs is minimized as they do not stay in the body for long enough to be properly used.
Prolonged use of alcohol can damage the liver in such a way that the liver is unable to metabolize the drugs and they stay in the body for long periods of time. This can be very harmful if the drug is an anti-psychotic drug which can further damage the liver.
The effect of alcohol on the body is that it is a central nervous system depressant. If alcohol is taken with another CNS depressant a person’s mind is greatly affected example alertness, judgment.
5. DRUGS and Laboratory results
Medicine and drugs have a direct impact on lab results. For example increased intake of laxatives can affect test results to analyze calcium or bone metabolism.
Penicillin can cause false increases in urine protein an indication of a kidney disease.